Study Questions --Fill-in-the-blank
Fill in the blank with words found in the text of Crossroads of the Past.
1. The Paleo Indians hunted big game, especially the elephant- like ___________.
2. The route of the Paleo Indians into the New World was the subcontinent
land bridge between Asia and Alaska that scholars call ___________.
3. Between 5000 and 4000 B.C. the ____________ people lived throughout most
of Arkansas. Their trash deposits or _________ reveal a diet that included
lost of hickory nuts.
4. The first town and important mounds and earthworks in North America were
built by native Americans at the __________ site in northeast Louisiana,
same thirty miles south of the Arkansas state line.
5. Probably used for duck hunting, the ________ weapon of the Poverty Point
peoples assisted of three small stone weights connected by cords. The source
of the stone weight was near Magnet Cove, Arkansas.
6. The first platform mound builders in Arkansas were the Plum Bayou people
whose great political and religious center was the _________ mound group
southeast of Little Rock.
7. Between A.D. 900 and A.D. 1200 the _______________ achieved an agricultural
revolution, moving from being part-time gardeners to being almost full-time
8. It was not soldiers and colonists of Europe that killed the Indians of
North America, it was the ________, the deadly microbes they unknowingly
brought with them.
9. Paleo Indians used spears with fluted points, known today as clovis points,
to hunt big game, _______ Ice Age animals that no longer exist.
10. The Woodland era saw technological advances with the use of pottery
and changes in food preparation. Especially important was to crush or _________
nuts, shells and all and to boil them in a pot to separate nut oil and nut
meats from shells.
11. Corn allowed the Mississippian population to increase dramatically.
But they paid a price with increased tooth decay since the high carbohydrate
food stuck to teeth forming an ideal environment for ________ that cause
12. Long before the bow and arrow appeared, the _________ was the main weapon
of the American Indians was 9,500 B.C. to A.D. 500.
13. Mississippians used ________ that were simple stone axes for cutting
down trees to clear fields for planting and to get wood for building their
houses and their elaborate fortifications.
14. The Caddo tribes in southwest Arkansas and northwest Arkansas had a
____________ on salt production, a vital ingredient in Indians diet in the
Mississippian Era when they ate lots of beans, corn and squash and no longer
got enough meat to obtain naturally the minimum amount of sodium required
to maintain good health.
1. Who were the first people to reach North and South America? Where
did they come from? How? Why?
2. What was the principal weapon of the Paleo Indians? Explain how
it was used. What animals were hunted with it?
3. Why were the first 2,000 years of the Archaic era extremely stressful
for the people of North America?
4. How was the life of the Tom's Brook peoples in Arkansas different
form their Paleo Indian ancestors?
5. Where is Poverty Point? Why is it important?
6. Describe how "Poverty Point objects" were used for cooking.
7. When was pottery first used on a large scale in Arkansas? What was
8. What religious purpose was served in the mound building of the Hopewell
peoples? What different religious purposes were expressed with the "platform
mounds" of the Plum Bayou people?
9. How was the diet, housing, and art of the Mississippians different
from those of the Poverty Point peoples?
10. When did tooth decay begin among the Indians? Why?
11. What was the "Black Drink" used by the Mississippians?
Why was it used?
12. Describe the Mississippian game of chunkey.
13. Where did the Caddo people live in Arkansas? How did they differ
in lifestyle from the Parkin and Nodena peoples of the Mississippian culture?
14. What caused the destruction of the Mississippians? What role did
Hernando De Soto's army play in their disappearance?
15. Where do modern descendants of Indians who once lived in Arkansas