Return to First Page----ARKANSAS HISTORICAL QUARTERLY, Volume 2 (June 1943), p.111

Many of these come no more to our woods and waters and a few, including the ivory-bill woodpecker, paraquets and the passenger pigeon, are gone forever. From the woods they gathered many kinds of food, including nuts,plums, persimmons, berries, etc. The Caddo Indian was an expert hunter and very efficient in the use of the bow and arrow. He was in excellent stalker and could get very close to his quarry by putting on the skin of the animal and imitating its actions.

For clothing, he was well supplied in skins, soft grass mats, and a kind of cloth woven from the inner bark of the mulberry tree. They were adept it tanning, both with the hair left on and off.

Although they were in the late Stone Age and knew nothing of metal except small fragments of copper used only for ornamental purposes, they were skilled in the manufacture and use of tools of many kinds made of bone and stone. They also made many items for ornamental and problematical uses. Some of them are real works of art. Of bone they made awls, needles, fleshers, arrow points, daggers, fish spears, hooks, spades, cooking and eating utensils and ornamental objects such as beads, ear plugs, pendants and rattles. From wood they made canoes, houses, bows, arrows, clothing, ornaments, implement handles and many bowls and platters for serving and storing fool. The bark of trees furnished them with cover, for temporary shelters needed on hunting and foraging trips, and was the source of much of their medicine and clothing.

The Caddoes of Clark county practiced cradle board deformation of the skull. This practice resulted in a low, flat forehead causing the skull to extend back considerably further than a normal skull. Early explorers refereed to them as "sharp heads" or "flat heads." However, this deformation does not seem to have affected their intelligence or length of life. Of their ability as orators, the Gentleman of Elvas says: "The Cacique of Tula made an oration to the Governor, wherein he excused himself, and offered him his country, subjects and person.

7. French, B.F. op. cit., Part II, p. 181.








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